LOCAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
DUTCHESS & PUTNAM COUNTIES, NEW YORK
Dutchess/Putnam County Appalachian Trail
D R A F T
December 14, 1998 (11:44AM)
Portions of the text of the Dutchess/Putnam County Appalachian Trail Local Management Plan are taken from the ATC Local Management Planning Guide, the Appalachian Mountain Club - Connecticut Chapter Local Management Plan, the older Dutchess and Putnam County plans, and material supplied by members of the current committee.
1 Introduction 1
2 Background 2
Route of the Appalachian Trail 2
Land Ownership 4
3 Partnership and the Planning Process 6
DPATMC Roles and Responsibilities 6
ATC Roles and Responsibilities 7
Agency Partners Roles and Responsibilities 7
Roles and Responsibilities of Other Parties 9
4 Issues and Policies - Physical Trail 10
Trail Maintenance 10
Signs and Bulletin Boards 11
Exterior Corridor Boundary Surveying 12
Bridges and Stream Crossings 12
Access Points, Trailheads and Parking 13
Connecting and Side Trails 14
Overnight Use - Shelters, Campsites and Privies 15
Drinking Water Supplies 16
Measurement of Trail Use 17
5 Issues and Policies - Public Use, Information and Emergency Response 19
Emergency Planning and Coordination 19
Special Events and Large Group Use 22
Public Information and Education Programs 23
Caretaker and Ridgerunner Programs 23
6 Issues and Policies - Conflicting Uses and Competing Uses 24
Motorized and Mechanized Uses - ORVs, ATVs, 4WDs, Bicycles, Snowmobiles 24
Litter and Graffiti 24
Horses and Pack Animals 26
Road Closures and Access Control 26
Special/Multiple Uses 27
Utilities and Communications Facilities 27
Adjacent Land Use 29
Structures and Dams 30
7 Issues and Policies - Resource Management 33
Open Areas and Vistas 33
Timber Management 33
Pest Management 34
Threatened and Endangered Species 35
Vegetation Management and Reclamation 36
Cultural Resources 36
Special and Unique Areas 37
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance 38
8 Annual and Long Range Plans 39
9 Appendices 40
Supplemental Documents 43
Cooperative Agreements and Memoranda of Understanding 49
Nuclear Lake Report 51
Planning Cycle and Calendar 51
Current Contact List 53
This local management plan (LMP) develops a local approach to, and a division of responsibilities for, the continuing management of the Appalachian Trail and the corridor of land within which the Trail passes in Dutchess and Putnam Counties, New York. (It also includes the short 1/4 mile section of the Trail in Westchester County from the Bear Mountain Bridge to the Putnam County line.) This approach preserves the lead role of the volunteer in the management of the Trail and fosters the cooperation and assistance of the local community, as well as local, state and federal governmental bodies. In particular, this plan describes the policies that the Dutchess/Putnam Appalachian Trail Management Committee (DPATMC) has developed to guide the committee and the volunteers of the New York-New Jersey Trail Conference (NYNJTC) in carrying out their delegated responsibilities for management. All policies and actions contained in this plan are subject to all applicable local, state and federal regulations.
The authority for local management of the Appalachian Trail and the lands on which it resides derives from the National Trails System Act (Public Law 90-543, as amended), the 1981 National Park Service (NPS) Appalachian Trail Comprehensive Plan, and the January 1984, as renewed March 1989, Memorandum of Agreement delegating authority for the management of the Appalachian Trail to the Appalachian Trail Conference (ATC) and its member clubs. The New York-New Jersey Trail Conference is the designee of the ATC, as one of its member clubs, for the Trail in New York and New Jersey. The Dutchess/Putnam Appalachian Trail Management Committee is the designee of the NYNJTC to fulfill these responsibilities for Dutchess and Putnam Counties, New York. As such, it is a permanent standing committee of the NYNJTC and has a vote on the Trails Council of the Conference.
Previous versions of the local management plans for Dutchess and Putnam Counties were developed in public meetings at various town offices in the two counties sponsored by the (then separate) management committees. All landowners affected by the NPS protection program, representatives of local, county and state agencies, trail maintaining groups and interested citizens were encouraged to participate. The purpose of these meetings was to identify trail issues, to develop policy alternatives, and to provide NYNJTC with recommendations for the management of the Trail in the two counties.
An issue analysis format was used, with specialists in each area invited to provide expertise on each topic. Each issue was discussed at consecutive meetings and policy statements approved by consensus. These issues form the body of this LMP in a manner which illustrates the thought process leading to the statement and any dissenting opinion.
Abbreviations used in this document are explained the Glossary (see Appendix 9.1).
Since the Appalachian Trail's inception in 1923, the NYNJTC has been involved in construction and maintenance of the section of the Trail in New York and New Jersey. With the passage of the National Trails System Act and the related management delegations, the NYNJTC created several committees to carry out the delegated responsibilities for the management of the Trail in New York and New Jersey.
Prior to the National Trails System Act, the Trail followed roughly its present course except that it was largely on roads. The longest protected piece was a 10 mile section in Clarence Fahnestock Memorial State Park. Even there, the Trail was moved to different ridges over the course of time and was moved again to align with the NPS purchases. Some parts were on private land with the landowner's permission. As these land owners changed, the Trail sometimes moved to other routes nearby.
The current management committee is the result of combining the formerly independent committees for Putnam and Dutchess Counties in 1991. The Dutchess committee was formed in 1980 and the Putnam committee in 1983. Prior to the formation of the committees, volunteers worked with the NPS land acquisition office to design a route for the trail across land identified for purchase by the NPS.
In Putnam County, the construction of the Trail across these newly purchased lands was completed in 1986. Except for small adjustments to broaden the corridor where it is too narrow, no future changes in the land ownership or the basic location of the Trail are anticipated.
In Dutchess County, a few small parcels must be acquired before the route of the Trail can be stabilized. Most of the Trail construction and land acquisition was completed by 1986. The largest missing piece is the route over Schaghticoke Mountain. As with Putnam County, there will be ongoing efforts to expand the corridor in a few places to provide adequate protection for the Trail.
2.2 Route of the Appalachian Trail
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail generally follows the height of land northeasterly along the fragmented, north-south ridge and valley formations between the Hudson Highlands and the lower Berkshires. The trail varies in elevation from about 150 feet at Bear Mountain Bridge to slightly over 1300 feet on Depot Hill.
Going from south to north, the Bear Mountain Bridge and the first quarter mile of Trail are in Westchester County along Route 9D. The Putnam County portion, 22 miles in length, stretches from there to Long Hill Road at the northern end of Clarence Fahnestock Memorial State Park. Twelve miles of this portion is newly constructed Trail within the NPS corridor eliminating the former road walks. The Dutchess County portion, about 30 miles in length, stretches from Long Hill Road to Connecticut. The large majority of this length, 27 miles, is new trail that has been constructed within the NPS corridor, eliminating over 20 miles of road-walking.
From the Bear Mountain Bridge the Trail climbs to the ridge on the shoulder of Anthony's Nose and continues north on a series of ridges paralleling the Hudson River. After dropping into South Mountain Pass, the Trail climbs to Canada Hill. Along the ridge of Canada Hill the Trail follows the boundary between NPS land and the Osborn Preserve section of Hudson Highlands State Park. It then drops down to a horse farm and crosses U.S. Route 9. From here it passes through the Graymoor Monastery as it climbs along a ridge to Denning Hill. In quick succession it crosses Old Albany Post Road, Canopus Hill Road and South Highland Road before entering Clarence Fahnestock Memorial State Park. In the park it crosses Dennytown Road, Sunk Mine Road and Route 301. The Trail is partly on historic old narrow gauge railroad beds. North of Route 301 it follows a ridge above Canopus Lake, eventually reaching Shenandoah Mountain and the northern border of the Park at Long Hill Road.
Just north of Long Hill Road the Trail enters Dutchess County. Moving north and east, the trail descends the wooded, eastern flank of Shenandoah Mountain, crosses Hortontown Road, then the Taconic State Parkway at Miller Hill Road, before climbing Hosner Mountain. The trail follows the west face of Hosner slightly below the ridge with views to the north and west, then descends to Hosner Mountain Road. Turning east and rising again, the trail crosses Stormville Mountain, Route 52, and a high meadow with views of the Catskills before reaching the crossing of Interstate 84 at Stormville Mountain Road.
The Trail then rises gently along the wooded crest of Depot Hill with views to the north, east and west, and crosses Depot Hill Road before descending to the next valley at West Pawling. After two road crossings, the trail swings north and east through the varied and beautiful woodlands near Nuclear Lake. Ascending, the trail emerges on the open ledges on West Mountain, descends sharply to a rural valley, and rises again across open fields to the top of Corbin Hill. The Swamp River and Route 22 are crossed in the Harlem Valley where the trail ascends Hammersly Ridge, turns north along the long ridge, then east to Wiley Shelter. Crossing Deuel Hollow Road, the trail descends to the Deuel Hollow Brook. It crosses through patches of woodland and pasture before reaching Hoyt Road at the New York-Connecticut border.
The Trail in Connecticut crosses Ten Mile Hill and Ten Mile River, and then follows the west bank of the Housatonic River to Bulls Bridge Road. Until further acquisition is completed, the trail temporarily follows Bulls Bridge Road to the west, crosses back into New York at a jog in the road, and comes to Dogtail Corners. There it turns right onto Preston Mountain Road (known locally as East Mountain Road) and follows that road north, turning right onto an old logging road and finally ascending Schaghticoke Mountain, where it re-enters Connecticut. Once acquisition has been completed, the planned route will leave Bulls Bridge Road in Connecticut, turn north briefly on Schaghticoke Mountain Road, and ascend the southeast flank of Schaghticoke Mountain, return to New York on a switchback on Schaghticoke Mountain, and then turn northeast once again to Connecticut.
See the maps in Appendix 9.9.
2.3 Land Ownership
The DPATMC advises the NPS Land Acquisition Office on the purchase of land for the AT or increasing the corridor width for Trail protection. This advice consists mostly of prioritizing the possibilities. In addition the DPATMC desires to be good neighbors to adjacent land owners. In particular this means living up to agreements made with former landowners about future requests for additional purchases. DPATMC strongly prefers purchases on a willing seller basis.
2.3.1 Putnam County
Approximately half of length of the AT in Putnam County is on NPS property (906.4 acres). The remainder is in either Hudson Highlands - Osborn Preserve (358 acres) or Fahnestock State Parks (6700 acres). Five pieces of property were acquired by the New York Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (OPRHP) before the NPS land acquisition program was in full swing. These tracts are adjacent to Fahnestock or the Osborn Preserve section of Hudson Highlands. They are separate in that they were identified as "Appalachian Trail Projects" and partially funded by NPS. Their acreage is not combined with either park. In addition there are 187.1 acres under some level of negotiation for eventual purchase. Most of the NPS land is fee simple but there are several significant easements. The Trail through Graymoor Monastery is located on easements acquired by NPS. The Trail west of U.S. Route 9 at Route 403 is on fee simple land but an easement has been acquired across some of the adjoining horse farm. About 170 acres in that area are monitored on behalf of the Trust for Public Land by DPATMC for violations of restrictions in the deed to further protect the Trail from adjacent development.
2.3.2 Dutchess County
In Dutchess County, ownership includes a number of small scenic or right-of-way easements, but the bulk of the trail corridor is land owned in fee by NPS. Below are listed some of the major parcels, especially those in which the NPS does not have full fee ownership.
184.108.40.206 Harlem Valley Psychiatric Center
The state of New York owns in fee a 68-acre tract in the Town of Dover over which the National Park Service has a right-of-way easement for the Trail. Additionally, the NPS is negotiating for the additional acquisition of over 17 acres as a scenic easement east of the other parcel.
220.127.116.11 Pawling Nature Reserve (TNC)
The Pawling Nature Reserve is a large parcel of land in the towns of Dover and Pawling that was formerly part of the Lowell Thomas estate. The Nature Conservancy holds fee ownership of the property, and the Trail corridor consists of a right-of-way easement of more than 107 acres, surrounded by scenic easements on each site providing over 140 acres of additional protection. The Nature Conservancy retains significant control of the land use of this corridor, including the possibility of causing a relocation of the trail to avoid endangered species habitat.
18.104.22.168 Town of Pawling
The Town of Pawling owns a parcel in excess of 96 acres west of New York state route 22 near Hurds Corners. This property includes the flood plain of the Swamp River and land on the eastern slope of Corbin Hill. The NPS holds a right-of-way easement over this land for the trail. In recent years the town has leased the flood plain portion of this parcel for agricultural use, but at various times it has contemplated recreational use of that portion.
22.214.171.124 Nuclear Lake
The Nuclear Lake parcel (NPS parcel number 269-18) is a single large parcel acquired for the Trail early in the acquisition process, consisting of 1137 acres in the Towns of Pawling and Beekman in Dutchess County. Prior to its acquisition by NPS, the parcel was the site of a nuclear fuels research facility, and it has since come to light that decommissioning efforts were incomplete insofar as removal of radioactive materials. See Section 3.4.2 for a discussion of its special management needs, and Appendix 9.5 for a discussion of the parcel's history.
126.96.36.199 Depot Hill Multiple Use Area (DEC)
The DEC multiple use area consists of 260 acres. It is managed for recreation, forest products, aesthetics, watershed, wildlife, and conservation. The last timber harvest was in mid-1991. The NPS established the trail by permit from DEC. The DEC's management practices with respect to the Trail are summarized as follows: (a) all forestry projects will be coordinated with management groups and be undertaken with sensitivity to the AT values; (b) dead, dying, or dangerous trees may be removed; (c) within 50 feet of the trail, tops will be lopped within 4 feet of the ground; (d) for tree harvesting north of the trail, only one crossing of the trail will take place in any cutting cycle; after completion, the crossing will be mulched and reseeded to a shady grass or wild flower mix for 50 feet on either side of the trail; (e) log landing will not be within sight of the trail; (f) litter will be picked by the Green Thumb Patrol program; (g) parking will be maintained and a "feeder" trail from the parking lot to the trail is permissible, if desired.
See Appendix 9.8 for inventories of fixed assets, natural resources, signs management concerns, etc.
3 Partnership and the Planning Process
Partnerships with state and local governments are central to the management process. The state role is spelled out in the MOU with New York State signed on June 1, 1993 and running for 5 years. Much of this LMP describes local management objectives and obligations, particularly where they differ or can be characterized by more local specifics.
Cooperative agreements between NPS, ATC, NYNJTC and the various levels and agencies of government are companion documents to this LMP. In particular, the regulations and policies of Hudson Highlands and Fahnestock State Parks that apply to the management and use of the Trail are accepted as part of this LMP. See Appendix 9.3.8.
3.1 DPATMC Roles and Responsibilities
The New York-New Jersey Trail Conference is a private not-for-profit organization of about 6000 individual members and about 75 member clubs which themselves have a membership in the 50-70,000 area. It is responsible for building and maintaining most of the trails in the southern New York, northern New Jersey area including the AT, currently about 1000 miles of trails. Much of the maintenance is done by the member clubs under its supervision. The DPATMC is a standing committee of the NYNJTC specifically entrusted to manage the AT in Dutchess and Putnam Counties.
The day-to-day operations of the Trail and the corridor lands are carried out under the direction of the DPATMC acting for the NYNJTC. The routine maintenance of the Trail is carried out by individual maintainers and/or maintaining clubs. The DPATMC is composed of representatives of the following groups and agencies:
!Chair of the DPATMC
!Four area supervisors (each supervises both monitors and maintainers)
!Up to two individual maintainers
!Up to two monitors
!Each trail or shelter maintaining club
!NYS Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation (OPRHP)
!NYS Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC)
!NPS - Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites
!Each town through which the Trail passes with significant acreage (Philipstown, Putnam Valley, East Fishkill, Beekman, Pawling and Dover)
!Additional members-at-large selected by the then-current committee, not to exceed one-third of the committee membership.
In addition, the NYNJTC President is an ex-officio member, the NYNJTC Executive Director will be kept informed through meeting minutes and the ATC Regional Representative will advise the committee and aid in carrying out its duties. The Chair of the committee is appointed by the President of NYNJTC each year in October. The Chair, in conjunction with the rest of the committee, may appoint a Vice Chair and other such positions as may be necessary for efficient operation.
For management purposes, the Trail and Trail lands are divided into four geographic areas. Each geographic area is headed by a supervisor who oversees the maintainers, maintaining clubs and monitors for that section. In the northernmost area, there are currently two supervisors, one for maintainers and the other for monitors.
The DPATMC is responsible for revising or updating the policies in this LMP. This revision will be done every five years (or more often if necessary). The DPATMC may update or revise existing management principles or add new ones in response to changing situations, provided that adequate opportunity for input is given to the committee's management partners. The NYNJTC must approve this LMP and any changes before official submission to ATC and NPS.
3.2 ATC Roles and Responsibilities
The Appalachian Trail Conference (ATC) is a private, not-for-profit organization of some 24,000 members dedicated to the protection, management and maintenance of the Appalachian Trail across its entire 2,140 mile length from Maine to Georgia. The ATC is also a federation of 32 hiking, outdoor and specifically AT clubs which are delegated the responsibilities for specific sections of the Trail and its corridor lands. The ATC role is defined by its constitution and bylaws, by adopted policies of it Board of Managers, the NPS, the USFS and the Trail states.
The 1981 National Park Service (NPS) Appalachian Trail Comprehensive Plan, and the 1984 Memorandum of Agreement are endorsed in their entirety. These documents spell out the details of the ATC responsibilities which include adequate management of the Trail and its corridor lands through oversight and support of its member organizations, the maintaining clubs. It coordinates the Trail protection and management efforts of clubs, state and Federal agencies, private landowners and others, and serves in a backup capacity for clubs if and when needed to guarantee adequate management. The ATC approach to clubs is supportive and respectful of their volunteer traditions. The ATC has numerous programs to enhance volunteer management of the Trail including a newsletter, grants, workshops and organized volunteer trail crews. ATC works closely with NPS, USFS and the Trail states.
The ATC publication, Local Management Planning Guide is endorsed as the model on which this plan is based. It is considered as a companion document to this LMP. The NPS and/or ATC policies listed in it are accepted without repetition in this document.
3.3 Agency Partners Roles and Responsibilities
The roles of New York State agencies are spelled out in the cooperative agreement that is currently under revision. Some of the important federal and state roles are mentioned below.
3.3.1 National Park Service
The NPS retains the primary authority and responsibility for the acquisition, development and administration of the AT under the National Trails System Act. NPS, which serves as the designee for the Secretary of the Interior, is responsible for overall administration of the entire AT in consultation with state and other Federal agencies.
The Project Manager, who is based at the Appalachian Trail Project Office (ATPO) in Harpers Ferry, WV, is the senior official responsible for administration of the AT as a unit of the National Park System. The Project Manager and his staff are bound by the same regulations, when applicable, that are in effect for all National Parks, as enumerated in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, "Parks, Forests, and Public Property."
Although responsibility for NPS acquired lands has been delegated to the ATC and the local AT maintaining clubs, the Project Manager retains responsibility for law enforcement, boundary surveying, land acquisition and compliance with NEPA. The Project Manager also reviews all LMPs to ensure that the policies and practices comply with NPS regulations, and retains ultimate responsibility for proper management of the Trail and Trail corridor lands.
3.3.2 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
A short section of Trail passes through a DEC multiple use area on Depot Hill and is the land-managing agency for this section. In addition, the DEC is the lead agency for fire protection; hunting, fishing and trapping enforcement; and monitors activities that might impact air or water quality. DEC serves a consulting role in forest management and frequently supplies seedlings for restoration.
3.3.3 New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
A significant portion of the Trail in Putnam County is in either Hudson Highlands or Fahnestock State Parks. The OPRHP manages the entire park area, but must seek approval from DPATMC about changes in usage in a buffer zone around the Trail. There is a larger zone of consultation where DPATMC's role is advisory. Those portions of land explicitly acquired by OPRHP for the AT are managed differently than land acquired by NPS. DPATMC has no monitoring responsibility on the state park lands. The State Park Police is one of the law enforcement agencies that can respond to incidents and emergencies on the Trail.
3.3.4 New York Department of Transportation
The DOT has responsibility for some parking areas adjacent to the Trail. In addition, they maintain and replace AT highway signs and are consulted by DPATMC about situations involving the safety of hikers at road crossings.
3.3.5 Municipal Agencies
The AT passes through the towns of Philipstown, Putnam Valley and Kent in Putnam County and East Fishkill, Beekman, Pawling and Dover in Dutchess County. A seat on the DPATMC is reserved for a representative from each town and efforts are made to maintain a partnership with the towns so that they may express their opinions on AT related matters. Their zoning boards are required to notify the NPS of requests for zoning changes on adjacent land. Although local permits, licenses, etc. are typically not required for projects on NPS lands, the DPATMC will continue the practice of obtaining appropriate permits and adhering to local regulations whenever possible. Also, local law enforcement agencies retain their authority to enforce all local and state laws within the Trail corridor.
3.3.6 County Agencies
The counties provide additional law enforcement support though the sheriff's office. DPATMC also interacts with the county health departments on issues of water purity and sanitary facilities.
3.4 Roles and Responsibilities of Other Parties
3.4.1 Abutting Landowners
Abutting landowners are treated by DPATMC as Trail corridor neighbors. Efforts are made to communicate with landowners so that they may be involved in AT related matters. Several informal trails lead from adjacent landowners' property or developments to the Trail. See Appendix 9.4.1 for an MOU concerning one of these.
3.4.2 Nuclear Lake Management Committee
The management of the Nuclear Lake property is discussed briefly in this LMP but all recommendations involving this property are subject to the reports and recommendations of a separate advisory body, the Nuclear Lake Management Committee (NLMC). This separation is due to its size, unique characteristics and the need to study additional uses. To date, the NLMC has made various recommendations to the NPS concerning the use of this property. Appendix 9.5 of this plan includes a copy of all recommendations issued to date, a list of all testing reports available, and a copy of the current version of the Nuclear Lake brochure that the DPATMC has prepared to meet the recommendations. The DPATMC is committed to supporting the NLMC, and has assisted in implementing the NLMC's recommendations whenever possible.
3.4.3 Private Groups
The Nature Conservancy, the Oblong Land Conservancy, the Trust for Public Lands, the Trust for Appalachian Trail Lands, the Open Space Institute and the Manitoga Nature Preserve have been involved with the protection and management of the AT or adjoining lands. Provisions will be made for their continued involvement through formal or informal cooperative arrangements.
4 Issues and Policies - Physical Trail
4.1 Trail Maintenance
The Trail will be constructed and maintained by DPATMC to the standards set forth in this document. The ATC publication, Trail Design, Construction, and Maintenance, along with the companion publication, Appalachian Trail Fieldbook, is the accepted standard for the topics it covers. To be compatible with other trails in the area, DPATMC will also follow the standards set by the Trails Council of the NYNJTC. In particular, DPATMC will mark turns with offset blazes, where appropriate.
Trail maintenance reports must be returned to the supervisors twice a year, by May 30 for winter/spring and by November 30 for summer/fall. The supervisors must return the summaries to the DPATMC Chair by June 14 and December 14.
Any proposals for relocations outside the corridor will go through ATC and NPS procedures. No relocations outside the current corridor are anticipated. The NYNJTC Trails Council's Trails Policy sets the applicable relocation procedures with respect to permissions required:
Major: A major relocation is one which would be visible on NYNJTC maps (e.g. more than 100 yards) or which moves the trail onto property owned by a different land owner. Major relocations require approval of the appropriate Trail Chair, the Trails Council and the Board of Directors of the NYNJTC. Prior approval of the land-owning agency, if required, must be obtained. There is usually a direct impact on the hiking community.
Minor: A minor relocation is not visible on a map but is likely to be noticed by someone familiar with the trail. It requires the maintainer to receive approval from the appropriate Trail Chair of the NYNJTC. A typical example is moving a trail 10 to 20 feet over a distance of 100 feet to avoid swampy conditions or erosion problems. There is no impact on the hiking community.
Insignificant: Insignificant relocations may be handled by the maintainer with no consultation. However, they should be reported to the supervisor. Insignificant is defined as affecting less than 20 feet of trail and with no major construction such as bridges. Typical examples are moving nearer to a tree suitable for a blaze, or to a better place for erosion prevention or for safety. Even people familiar with the trail would not be likely to notice the change.
4.3 Signs and Bulletin Boards
A complete list of signs is provided in the inventory in Appendix 9.8. DPATMC will post signs where appropriate,using the following guidelines:
!Follow applicable NPS, ATC, NYNJTC and NYS sign policies.
!Use informational and regulatory signs to inform hikers, Trail neighbors, and potential trespassers about restrictions that apply on the Trail and corridor lands.
!Keep the number and size of signs to minimum.
!Convey the message in a friendly and positive manner to the extent possible.
!Post specific prohibitions in chronically abused or overused areas.
!Use temporary signs to post trail closings or major relocations.
!Request municipalities or other agencies to install NO PARKING or other regulatory signs as necessary. The installer of such signs will be responsible for their maintenance and replacement.
!Request DOT to install and maintain triangular AT signs and hiker crossing symbols at all major road crossings.
!Use bulletin boards to reduce sign clutter. The bulletin boards will be located out of sight of roads, typically 200 feet. The boards will contain: "Welcome" sign, map, emergency phone numbers, brochures and other informational signs.
!Post some designated parking areas as HIKER PARKING ONLY.
!Post water sources at designated campsites as UNTESTED except where it is tested and managed by others, e.g. Fahnestock group campsite.
4.3.1 Nuclear Lake Signs
Until the Nuclear Lake hazards and potential hazards have been resolved, and in accordance with the Nuclear Lake Management Committee's resolutions, the following signs are being maintained by the DPATMC to warn the public of the Restricted Area:
!Bulletin Boards bearing a permanently attached copy of the current Nuclear Lake brochure and holders providing additional copies of the brochure at (1) 200 feet south of the crossing of old Route 55 near West Pawling, (2) the junction of the side trail to parking and the AT north of Route 55, and (3) 200 feet south (physically west) of the crossing of Penny Road. The blue alternate trail starts near location (1) and ends near location (3).
!A ring of "Restricted Area--No Entry" signs radially outward 600 feet from Nuclear Lake and the United Nuclear site buildings, approximately 40 feet apart.
Boundary marking and signs for this purpose are covered under section 4.4 Perimeter Surveying.
4.4 Exterior Corridor Boundary Surveying
Established boundaries promote positive relations with abutting land owners. The corridor boundaries must be physically marked to aid managing and protecting the trail lands. Accurate inspections and law enforcement are difficult in those locations that have not been surveyed and marked. All but the more recent purchases have been marked in both counties but there are several areas where there are disagreements. Surveying is an expensive process that must be done by licensed surveyors contracted by NPS. The boundary markings degrade and disappear with time if they are not maintained.
!Encourage NPS to survey and mark the corridor according to the NPS standards following priorities established by DPATMC. See Appendix 9.3.3.
!Inspect the condition of all perimeter blazes, signs and monuments at least every two years.
!Maintain the painted boundary markers and signs as necessary.
!Request the replacement of missing monuments and perimeter blazes which have been destroyed.
4.5 Bridges and Stream Crossings
The Trail in Dutchess and Putnam Counties has many brooks, streams, and wet areas. In many of these areas, puncheon, bridges, and stepping stones have been constructed to provide a minimum level of safety and comfort for the hikers.
The standards for bridge construction contained in the ATC publication, Trail Design, Construction, and Maintenance, along with the companion publication, Appalachian Trail Fieldbook, are accepted by this LMP.
The DPATMC adopts the ATC policy that states "streams 20 feet or more wide and that have a history of annual flooding should be bridged or alternate routes posted." Evaluation of potential bridges should be done carefully to determine whether relocation or redesign of the stream approaches, or relocation of the footpath, could eliminate the need for a bridge.
Bridges should be kept to a minimum due to aesthetics, cost, and maintenance. Where possible, puncheons or well placed large rocks are preferred over bridges. Wet areas should be hardened to avoid having hikers create increasingly wide treadways. Bridges shall be maintained by the maintainer or club that has been assigned the trail section involved. Bridges should be inspected annually, including their substructure, piers, and abutments. NYS regulations require inspections and handrails on bridges.
The current stream crossing, bridges and puncheons are listed in the inventories in Appendix 9.8.
4.6 Access Points, Trailheads and Parking
There are numerous trailheads or access points in Dutchess and Putnam counties because the Trail has road crossings every 2-3 miles. See Appendix 9.8 for an inventory of access points, roads and parking places.
Trailheads are at paved road crossings. They usually have parking and some trailhead facilities such as bulletin boards.
Access points are at dirt road crossings with little traffic and are not suitable for access by the general public. Most of them have room for the maintainer to park one car. There are no intentions to improve or publicly identify these parking spots. Most of the neighbors on these dirt roads would prefer that there be no parking in the vicinity of the Trail. If there is a need to develop additional areas for non-public use, the maintainers and monitors will be responsible for soliciting these "convenience" access points.
There are also access points via side trails or old woods roads that can be used for emergencies. In addition, there are several side trails that act as trailheads, e.g. from Manitoga and the Pawling Nature Preserve.
Several trailheads are accessible by train or bus. See the inventory for details. In printed materials, DPATMC will advertize and advocate their use.
The majority of trail users are day users who come to the trail by private car. The size and location of available parking influences the level of use the trail receives. Parking facilities have the potential to impact adjacent landowners and nearby trail features.
Off-road parking areas may not be plowed in winter. DPATMC will not be responsible for plowing. In addition, most towns do not allow overnight parking on the sides of the roads from November 1 to April 1.
The complete list of parking areas is in the inventory in Appendix 9.8. DPATMC will use the following guidelines for managing existing parking areas or evaluating proposals for additional parking areas:
!Some form of designated parking will be provided by DPATMC at intervals not exceeding eight miles.
!Designated parking areas will be selected using criteria including:
!safety of hiker and motorist
!environmental constraints present at the site
!desirability to correlate maintenance jurisdictions with parking
!the use of existing parking areas
!Parking will be encouraged at designated parking areas only. DPATMC will encourage the appropriate state, county and town departments to establish and enforce no-parking signs or ordinances where safety or abuse of private property is a recognized issue.
!Designated parking areas requiring new construction will be small (3-9 cars) in size, and their construction will be undertaken by DPATMC. Assistance by OPRHP, DEC, and/or DOT will be requested when appropriate. The capacity of any parking area constructed on NPS lands will not be changed without the approval of DPATMC, and only after DPATMC determines that the trail is capable of sustaining increased levels of use.
!DPATMC will implement a system to identify and review problems or inadequacies relating to parking in conjunction with the local municipality on an as-needed basis.
!No trash barrels will be provided for trail users. DPATMC will encourage a "Carry In-Carry Out" philosophy through its various publications.
!A map indicating access points, road crossings and designated parking areas will be provided to all law enforcement units, rescue squads and fire departments by DPATMC.
!Most paved roads that cross the trail will be marked with AT road crossing signs as well as state "hiker crossing" signs.
4.7 Connecting and Side Trails
There are at present no officially designated AT connecting trails and none are contemplated. Any such future officially designated trails will be maintained to the same standards as the AT.
There are several short blue trails listed in the inventory which go to points of interest, overnight use areas and water sources. These trails are maintained by a designated maintainer as if they were part of the AT.
There are two longer NYNJTC trails which together with the AT form a loop trail which can be done as a day hike. These are the Osborn Loop Trail on Canada Hill and the 3-Lakes Trail in Fahnestock State Park south of Route 301. A short loop hike is available on Hosner Mountain. The Pawling Nature Preserve also has numerous connecting trails.
There is currently a major effort in the Hudson River Valley to produce an interconnected greenway system. The Trail in Putnam County will be a significant part of the greenway and the situation may eventually have implications which have to be considered in more detail. The DPATMC is actively cooperating with initiatives in both counties.
4.8 Overnight Use - Shelters, Campsites and Privies
The section of the Trail through the two counties is expected to receive a high level of use based on accessibility, population and trail quality. DPATMC will designate overnight use areas in accordance with NPS regulations. Camping is not allowed except at these designated sites.
The designated overnight use areas are spaced so that each through hiker has some flexibility in the distance to be travelled. DPATMC recognizes that there will be significant use of these sites by short term overnight hikers, e.g. scout groups, as well as through hikers capable of going longer distances. It is desirable to concentrate overnight use at designated locations to minimize adverse environmental impacts.
Besides shelters and campsites, there is one hostel adjacent to the Trail. Graymoor Monastery presently has an open invitation to through hikers to spend the night, eat dinner and breakfast, and take a shower. This arrangement is subject to the policies of the monastery personnel. Contributions are accepted.
There are no shelters in Putnam County and none are planned because of the short distances between roads and the possibilities of abuse. In addition, at town meetings in the early 1980's there was widespread opposition to shelters. In Dutchess County, four shelters and two tent sites are located at varying intervals along the Trail. The current complete list of overnight use facilities is listed in the inventory in Appendix 9.8. The guidelines below are the criteria used for selecting these sites and any future ones:
!Designated overnight use areas will be provided by DPATMC at intervals not to exceed twelve miles. Campfires and camping will be permitted at these sites only.
!The criteria for selection of a location as a designated overnight use area include:
!the availability of a year-round source of water within one-quarter mile, which has reasonable protection from external contamination.
!maximum possible distance from roads, vehicular traffic and private dwellings, except where on-site management is available.
!the existence of soils suitable for the development of sanitary facilities.
!ease of access to, but preferably not within sight of, the main trail.
!the avoidance of environmentally sensitive areas and sites having a high fire potential in any season.
!a preference for existing overnight use areas where these meet most of the above criteria.
!The development of designated overnight use areas includes or will include:
!improvements which are feasible in terms of the necessary material and manpower for construction and ongoing maintenance.
!consideration of the preferences of the long distance hiker.
!a privy which offers adequate privacy, separation from water source, and complies with applicable local health regulations.
!a central fire ring or fireplace with adequate clearance to minimize fire hazard.
!the use of materials which blend into the natural environment.
!appropriate signs to identify the site and to reinforce proper campsite behavior.
!a register book.
!Water sources will be identified with signs at each designated overnight use area.
!Each overnight use area will have its own designated maintainer.
!Designated overnight use areas and water sources will be in place prior to opening any relocation which eliminates an existing facility.
!DPATMC will assess the impact and adequacy of the designated overnight use areas on an annual basis using data obtained from registers and/or site inspections.
Routine maintenance of privies is the responsibility of the shelter maintainer. More serious problems of moving or replacing are handled by volunteer work crews organized by the DPATMC.
4.8.1 Length of Stay
Overnight use areas are designed for hiker use only. It is the policy of the DPATMC to limit use of an overnight use area (either in the shelter provided or in tenting space provided) to no more than three consecutive nights, and no individual may use any given site for more than seven nights in any twelve-month period. The Committee will seek the assistance of local law enforcement personnel and/or the land owning agency as required to enforce this provision. [The maximum-stay provision was added in September, 1989, to deal with an actual case of squatters who attempted to take up residence at an overnight use area. Such use is clearly not desired by the Committee, and in fact has the effect of discouraging use of facilities by legitimate through hikers.]
4.9 Drinking Water Supplies
ATC policies of marking water supplies will be followed. Water sources within Fahnestock State Park are subject to park policies. Water supplies are listed in the ATC Guidebook and Databook and the inventory. The Committee is concerned about development of water sources apart from overnight use areas specifically because unauthorized camping might occur in or near such locations. Any water sources developed away from overnight use areas should be specifically designed to discourage camping in the vicinity.
Water locations will be signed by DPATMC in accordance with the ATC drinking water supply policy adopted April 16, 1989. Signs will include the following statement: "Untested water supply. Water should be boiled, filtered or chemically treated before use." No signs of any type will be provided at any other water feature, unless the Trail crosses streams that have been reported as being polluted such that they cannot be safely treated for human consumption. Although the wells are signed as untested, they are in fact tested yearly for bacterial contamination. They have all been tested for other contaminants such as heavy metals at least once.
For the convenience of hikers, additional water sources, not associated with an overnight use area, have been identified at the following locations: the well on the former Baker property on Depot Hill, the well on the former Peni property at Old Route 55, and the well on the former Yegella Farm property near Hurds Corners Road. [Fall, 1991] None to date have been designated. See Appendix 9.8 for the inventory of water locations.
4.10 Measurement of Trail Use
The amount of use a trail receives affects the amount of maintenance it will need. Trail usage information will be collected from registers on the Trail and register books in shelters. Knowledge of use patterns is necessary to avoid overuse of particular trail sections. The ability to accurately document the level of trail use is useful in obtaining financial and political support. Information recorded in registers is useful in locating hikers who need to be notified of emergencies at home.
A description of the uses of this information in re-directing use of the trail system, assistance in search and rescue, and the like should be published periodically.
The locations of register boxes and shelters is in the inventory in Appendix 9.8. The following guidelines will be followed:
!Register boxes will continue to be the primary source of user information with space for name, address, type and size of group, direction of travel, and length of stay. Books will be provided by NYNJTC, collected and replaced by a volunteer. Register locations will be determined by the DPATMC and will be as far from roads as feasible.
!Shelter register books will be provided by NYNJTC. Standard register-box books are not appropriate here, as they do not leave adequate room for extensive comments. While these registers do not provide as much statistical information, they do provide additional useful anecdotal information on trail condition and problems encountered by hikers. The shelter caretaker should collect and replace registers well before they are filled and forward them to the Chair.
!All data collected will be sent to the Chair and the information summarized on an annual basis. The yearly summary will be forwarded to the NYNJTC and ATC by March 1 for the previous calendar year.
!In its publications, NYNJTC will encourage trail users to sign register books at registers and shelters.
5 Issues and Policies - Public Use, Information and Emergency Response
5.1 Emergency Planning and Coordination
Fire, crime or injury emergencies should be reported immediately to the nearest responding agency. Emergency numbers are provided in Appendix 9.7. They should also be reported to trail officials promptly. If the appropriate supervisor is not available, they should be reported to the next person up the management chain until one finds someone to handle the problem. Less pressing problems should either be handled by the monitor or maintainer or reported to the supervisor for handling. All problems in either Hudson Highlands or Fahnestock State Parks should be reported to the Park Superintendent. Problems adjoining Camp Smith should be reported to Camp Smith.
DPATMC will invite emergency personnel to a joint meeting at least once every five years where DPATMC will outline what services DPATMC expects and how DPATMC can assist. DPATMC will supply the various agencies with maps showing access points, phone numbers of people familiar with the trail, and reporting procedures. ATC requires prompt reports of many types of incidents, including any criminal action, fire, search and rescue, or medical emergency.
5.1.1 Law Enforcement
Because the NPS AT corridor in New York will be managed under a "concurrent jurisdiction" [pending completion of some notification paperwork by NPS and ATC], local law enforcement agencies retain their authority to enforce local and state laws within the corridor while federal law officers can enforce federal criminal laws as well as state criminal code.
Existing law enforcement units, including the Dutchess and Putnam County Sheriff's Offices, New York State Police, State Park Police, local town Police Departments, and DEC Conservation Officers will enforce state and local laws on the trail lands under their jurisdiction, including all NPS land. In emergencies, any of the above will respond with the nearest available unit.
The law enforcement units involved noted a lack of problems in the past and are willing to assist if problems are identified. Accurate information was considered the only requirement for prompt response.
To aid in law enforcement, DPATMC will provide the following:
!Post emergency telephone numbers at appropriate locations (near parking areas, overnight use areas, registers) with the wording: FOR POLICE OR EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE, CALL xxx-xxxx.
!Give a list and map of access points, designated parking areas and road crossings to each agency. If there are hiker reports of roadside problems, ATC or DPATMC/NYNJTC will request additional patrols and increased law enforcement.
!Assist in posting or otherwise providing notification to hikers of emergency circumstances that may put them at risk on the Trail.
!Assist in the event of an emergency by locating the quickest and most efficient access to the location of the emergency on the Trail.
!Assist in any other capacity requested by local law enforcement or agency personnel during an emergency.
5.1.2 Liability and Public Safety
Trail users desire and expect to encounter a minimal amount of development while hiking the Appalachian Trail. Trail design, construction, and maintenance reflect this attitude of minimal visible development while maintaining a level of safety for the "reasonable and prudent" individual. There are several State and Federal laws that address the extent of liability. These laws apply to the Federally-owned lands of the AT.
To limit liability DPATMC will:
!Regularly provide proper trail maintenance.
!Encourage users to stay on the trail through:
!proper clearing and blazing
!posting additional signs such as PLEASE STAY ON TRAIL in problem areas.
!educational materials such as brochures and guidebooks.
!Educate potential trail users, who may have limited expertise, about personal safety, hiker etiquette and New York AT characteristics.
!Not guarantee the quality of any water source. The guidebook will continue to include a disclaimer to this effect. The identified water sources will be marked in accordance with the ATC drinking water supply policy adopted April 16, 1989.
!Provide for inspection of foot bridges by a qualified individual on a regular basis.
!Compile a list of known hazards within the corridor through corridor monitors. Prior to the opening of new trail sections, all known hazards will be removed, mitigated or have a warning posted by DPATMC. New or previously unknown hazards will be reported to DPATMC. The supervisor will initiate the removal of the hazard as quickly as possible. The assistance of other cooperating partners will be enlisted by DPATMC as required.
!Conduct an annual inspection for hazard trees in areas where hikers are inclined to stay a longer period of time (shelters, campsites, parking areas and vistas.) All identified hazard trees will be removed as quickly as possible.
!Maintain a semi-annual record of:
!trail and shelter maintenance reports
!hazard identification and removal.
!Maintain an ongoing record of unusual incidents that occur on or near the AT and the corridor, and send copies of such reports to ATC in a timely manner.
!Comply with the provisions of the NPS-ATC VIP (Volunteers-in-the-Parks) agreement dated 2/1/83 (See Appendix 9.3.1) and the provisions necessary for Worker's Compensation that apply in the state parks (See Appendix 9.3.2).
5.1.3 Fire Prevention and Suppression
Appropriate improvements and educational materials can minimize fire potential. Existing fire suppression procedures and organizations will operate on trail lands. The agencies involved in its operation agreed that existing procedures should be an effective means of providing this coverage on the trail.
Calls regarding forest fires on the Trail or Trail lands will be referred to the Dutchess County Alarm Headquarters or in Putnam County to the 911 emergency number, which will notify the appropriate local fire department. If assistance is required, the local company will contact Alarm Headquarters. Other local companies, DEC personnel, and club volunteers may be requested as back-up manpower. The local fire company will be the lead agency at the scene, until relieved by DEC Forest Rangers.
The telephone number of the Alarm Headquarters will be posted by DPATMC at appropriate locations (near parking areas, overnight use areas, registers) with the wording: TO REPORT FIRES OR AMBULANCE, CALL 471-1414 (Dutchess) or 911 (Putnam).
Closing of state lands due to high fire danger is common in the summer. DPATMC will follow the lead of the state agencies regarding Trail closings on NPS lands during periods of extreme fire danger. The committee will continue to be sensitive to this problem and will closely monitor the situation during times when extreme fire danger exists. In particular we will attempt to keep the trails open to through hikers while discouraging other hikers. All trailheads will be appropriately signed to advise hikers of the situation.
If at any time, a local fire company or the Alarm Headquarters determines that fires are becoming an increasing problem on the trail, they will contact DEC-Lands and Forests Office, New Paltz, NY (see Appendix 9.7 for telephone numbers). DEC will contact DPATMC and arrange a meeting where the causes of the problems will be determined and possible solutions identified.
If the DPATMC, monitor, or maintainer becomes aware of a fire, the information should be passed to the monitor involved, who should include it on the next monitoring report. The supervisor should be immediately notified; he should obtain a copy of the agency report(s), fill out an incident report, and send a copy of each to the Trail Management Coordinator at ATC.
The use of stoves instead of fires will be encouraged by DPATMC. Open fires will be permitted, subject to applicable regulations, at designated overnight use areas having these improvements:
!availability of water in the immediate area.
!an area clear of debris and organic matter.
!fire ring or other containment facility.
!clear opening in the tree canopy.
Where fires are permitted at overnight use areas, the DPATMC will provide at one designated fire ring or fireplace. Extra fire rings there or elsewhere on the trail will be removed.
Fire prevention informational and educational material, when available, will be provided to DPATMC by DEC. DPATMC will be responsible for posting this information near designated parking areas and overnight use areas.
Local fire company personnel will be encouraged to hike their respective sections of the trail by DPATMC.
5.2 Special Events and Large Group Use
To be consistent with the ATC Board of Managers' policy on special events and group use (Nov.14, 1987), both public and AT club hiking groups should limit overnight use of Trail facilities to 10 people. Day use groups should not exceed 25 people. Furthermore, the Trail should not be used for special events or group activities (such as publicized spectator events, commercial or competitive activities) that degrade its natural and cultural resources or social values.
Large groups of hikers and campers endanger water sources due to limited sanitary facilities. There are concerns with safety at road crossings and trail head parking impacts. There can be seasonal damage to trail treadway during wet weather and fire danger during dry weather. The corridor is narrow in some places and neighboring landowners can be affected.
Larger groups should contact the DPATMC in advance. DPATMC may approve a specific large group use, if the DPATMC feels that the use is in keeping with the spirit of this policy. Youth groups such as Scout groups should first obtain their organization's trip permits and subscribe to their published wilderness use policies while using the AT.
5.3 Public Information and Education Programs
The DPATMC information and education program for the Trail should have two objectives: (a) to inform the public on how to plan and carry out a safe, enjoyable journey on the Trail, and (b) to educate the public on how to use the Trail without damaging Trail resources or spoiling the experience for other hikers. Maintainers and monitors are encouraged to interact with other hikers and help them where possible.
!rely on ATC and NY/NJ Trail Conference workshops and publications such as guide books and maps for most of the information and education program.
!maintain register boxes and stock them with Dutchess/Putnam County, NY/NJ Trail Conference, ATC and/or NPS brochures.
!seek favorable publicity in local media concerning the Trail.
!keep ATC advised of changes which affect its publications.
!use information signs at road crossings and facilities to further inform Trail users.
5.4 Caretaker and Ridgerunner Programs
There are no ridgerunners in either county. We are now considering ridgerunners in the future. In Dutchess County, the RPH cabin has a volunteer summer caretaker who mows the lawn, cleans, makes minor repairs, handles mail drops and welcomes hikers. NPS and ATC policies will apply to any caretaker or ridgerunner programs established.
6 Issues and Policies - Conflicting Uses and Competing Uses
6.1 Motorized and Mechanized Uses - ORVs, ATVs, 4WDs, Bicycles, Snowmobiles
Off-road vehicles (ORVs), all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), and mountain bicycles affect both the physical resources of the AT and the primitive experiences available on the AT as a hikers' sanctuary. Snowmobiles, although they do not generally adversely affect the physical resources of the trail, do have an effect on the primitive experience.
All motorized and mechanized vehicles are prohibited on the NPS lands. There are no authorized crossings or uses currently and none are planned. State Park laws apply on the state lands. Motorized vehicles are prohibited by the state but there appears to be no clear state policy on non-motorized vehicles. DPATMC strongly discourages the use of any mechanized vehicles within the Trail Corridor, except for emergencies, limited management purposes, deeded rights-of-way, limited special uses with a permit from NPS and locations where the Trail follows established public or private roads.
There has been a history of violations of these regulations, so DPATMC will take active steps to seek enforcement of the rules. These steps include posting signs, asking people to report violations so DPATMC can request police aid, and blocking access where possible. When contacting a motorized or mechanized vehicle user on the trail or its corridor, monitors and maintainers should make every effort to educate the user that these vehicles are prohibited. See Appendix 9.8 for a current list of problem areas.
6.2 Litter and Graffiti
Litter and graffiti are serious detractions to enjoying the outdoors. Presence of litter or graffiti tends to attract additional abuse, whereas the absence of litter or graffiti is an effective deterrent. Litter and graffiti have not been a major
problem. The DPATMC desires to keep the Trail and corridor free of litter and graffiti. The following guidelines will aid in managing graffiti and litter:
!A "carry in, carry out" philosophy is in effect and trail users will be encouraged to follow this principle through signs at potential abuse areas, i.e., camping areas, road crossings, and parking areas.
!Routine trash pickup will be the responsibility of maintainers and monitors.
!Trash receptacles will not be used unless they are guaranteed to be emptied on a regular basis.
!Standard signing and blazing will be adhered to in order to avoid a "graffiti-like" appearance.
The DPATMC will promptly restore damaged areas to near pristine conditions by implementing the following guidelines:
!Remove "historical trash" as manpower and funds are available.
!Major clean-up tasks will be addressed by the DPATMC. These problem areas should be brought to the attention of the DPATMC by the local maintainers and monitors.
!Local towns will be asked to assist in picking up large amounts of litter from the road sides when necessary.
Hunting along most sections of the AT has been a traditional use of the land. It is a use that may pose a concern for the safety of hikers on the Trail and, as such, has been an issue that is the focus on ongoing discussion between NPS and ATC as well as locally.
The Trail passes through several jurisdictions which allow hunting. Fahnestock State Park has a short bow season for deer. The DEC Depot Hill Multiple Use area allows hunting. The Pawling Nature Preserve allows hunting by invitation. Hunting is prohibited on the NPS lands in the two counties, but enforcement is difficult at best. Most of the adjoining land in Putnam County is posted for no hunting. Many of the adjoining land owners in Dutchess County allow hunting.
All regulations and provisions of the New York State Fish and Wildlife Law will be in effect and enforced on NPS lands as they are elsewhere. A variety of mitigating steps will be taken to ensure that hunting is not encouraged within NPS lands. These include:
!allow existing posted signs to remain.
!post trail lands along road frontage in problem areas.
!post boundaries at the request of the adjoining land owner.
!post boundaries where the corridor is narrower than 300 feet.
!post "safety zone" signs within 500 feet of a shelter or Trail facility.
!remove platforms in trees.
!study use (number of cars) on the first day of small game season and on the first day of deer season (by monitors if possible) as an informational tool.
!promote education and communication between hikers and hunters. In particular DPATMC should attempt to contact local Fish & Game Clubs to inform sportsmen of these policies and goals.
!encourage hikers to wear blaze orange during hunting seasons.
6.4 Horses and Pack Animals
Canada Hill has well graded and hardened paths suitable for horseback riding. The AT is on two of these paths, where riding is permitted in the original deeds. Approximately 1.3 miles of the Trail wander along the boundary between NPS land and Hudson Highlands Park land on the top of the Canada Hill ridge. The other section is between the fields near Route 9 and where the Trail ascends Canada Hill. The number of horses using the trail is quite light as only the adjacent landowners have easy access.
The fields near Route 9 are used as a horse pasture by local horse farmers. This area should have a special use permit (that is renewed periodically) as it adds to the character of the land and is consistent with historical usage.
In no case are horses or pack animals allowed on other sections. There have been instances of horse usage in areas that do not permit it. At some future time, enforcement and education efforts may be required and/or have NO HORSES signs posted. There are signs at the road crossings which mark the Trail for foot travel only.
Roads and road crossings are considered to be detrimental to the trail experience. However, in a developed area such as Dutchess and Putnam Counties they are frequent and unavoidable. There are several short sections where the Trail will remain on public roads, e.g. near Bear Mountain Bridge. In addition there are sections on private roads or rights-of-way.
Each road crossing provides an access point for unauthorized motorized vehicles, horses, trail bikes, ATVs, etc. Trash dumping is likely to occur on or near road access points. The proximity of the AT to roads and frequent road crossings by the AT itself decrease hiker security and the quality of the trail experience. It is unlikely that any future road construction other than upgrading the surface or widening will occur. The DPATMC will oppose any new road construction on, across or near Trail lands. With increasing traffic and widening of some of the roads, it will be necessary for DPATMC to lobby strongly for pedestrian overpasses, e.g. the Taconic Parkway crossing. See the Position Paper on Local Development in the references, Appendix 9.2.
6.6 Road Closures and Access Control
Where practical DPATMC supports closing as many access roads to corridor lands as possible. Some of these roads serve for fire fighting and must be closed with gates that can be opened by appropriate authorities. Some are used for management access for mowing or shelter work. Most of the rest should be permanently closed. The access roads and proposed closure methods are listed in detail in the inventories in Appendix 9.8. The closing of roads will be coordinated with local landowners and towns. The ATC "Best" lock system will be used on all gates that may need to be opened for management purposes.
6.7 Special/Multiple Uses
As open space becomes increasingly scarce, proposals for uses of the NPS corridor will be made. All additional uses exert some impact on the management and quality of the trail. A mechanism is desirable to review the proposals and assess their impact. Hiking will always be the primary use of the Trail and its surrounding corridor. Any other uses permitted by the committee must be considered compatible and have no significant adverse impact upon the AT hiking experience. See especially the sections on timber management and open space management.
On the west side of Canada Hill, the AT lands share a boundary with Manitoga, a Nature Preserve. DPATMC will cooperate with them for limited use of the adjoining corridor land, well away from the Trail, as a nature study area. This is considered to be a compatible use. See Appendix ?.
Consultation with NPS and ATC must take place, whenever another use is proposed for the corridor. Uses, other than hiking, not specifically referred to in the Federal enabling legislation require an NPS SUP and will be dealt with by the DPATMC on a case-by-case basis in the following manner:
!The "decision matrix" (see Appendix 9.3.6) will be used, where practical, to weigh the pros and cons of each proposal, problem or request.
!The committee will try to reach a consensus on each decision. If there is considerable disagreement on an issue, ATC and NPS will be consulted.
!The ATC Regional Representative will keep the committee informed of management problems or requests.
Upon the committee's recommendation, the NPS may issue a Special Use Permit for recreational or management activities on the AT corridor.
6.8 Utilities and Communications Facilities
Existing or proposed communications towers can negatively affect the scenic quality of views from the AT. Existing utility and communications facilities both cross the AT and/or adjoin the trail. The trail community needs to watch carefully for proposals to expand such facilities. Early involvement by the DPATMC and others in the review process for new facilities can result in desirable mitigation or relocation of planned facilities away from the trail and its viewshed.
ATC policy opposes any construction of new utility lines or communications facilities on the AT corridor lands, except in unusual extenuating circumstances. ATC policy also encourages the DPATMC and agency partners to participate in public review processes for all utility and communications-site facility proposals located within the viewshed of the AT. ATC seeks to limit the number of facilities visible from the Trail and supports any and all measures that reduce or eliminate the visual impact, when viewed from the AT.
To these ends, DPATMC will:
!send a copy of its Position Paper on Local Development (see Appendix 9.2) to the agencies involved. Where possible, DPATMC will participate in local regulatory reviews and hearings.
!follow policies stated in section 6.9 Adjacent Land Use of this document that apply to utilities and communications facilities. Of particular importance are those policies designed to make the DPATMC aware of new proposals at the earliest possible stage in the process.
!attempt to limit development of new communication facilities to existing sites, encourage consolidation of existing facilities wherever possible, and recommend removal of these facilities when and if satellite or other technology renders them obsolete in the future.
!recommend that the NPS and ATC pursue protective easements with facility owners that include provisions preventing additional towers and provisions giving the ATC and/or NPS the right of first refusal to acquire the site if the utility abandons it (for communications purposes). The DPATMC will undertake to insure that any new tower be sited away from the viewshed of the AT, or at least designed to minimize environmental and visual impacts.
Appendix 9.8 lists existing communications and utility facilities near the Trail. Examples include the New York State Gas & Electric power line on Shenandoah Mountain and the AT&T tower on Depot Hill.
There are power line rights-of-way at most road crossings. Extensive new construction on adjoining properties may require upgrading power and telephone lines along these rights-of-way. The New York State Gas and Electric Company and Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. are both aware of the Trail and have been responsive to DPATMC's desires in the past. Monitors should watch for signs of flagging activity along the roads so that DPATMC can remind the utility companies of the AT presence and the desire to minimize the impact.
Small-scale renewable energy structures, such as wind, hydro, and solar systems, may be appropriate near the trail so long as maximum efforts are made to mitigate adverse impacts.
The DPATMC has successfully intervened in utility proposals. In 1988-89, US Cellular Telephone proposed a new tower for Depot Hill, adjacent to the AT&T tower. The DPATMC presented its case at the Beekman Planning and Zoning Board meetings, and after a site visit involving the town, DPATMC, and NPS personnel a compromise was arranged that involved a relocation of the Trail to a new route on corridor to be acquired, US Cellular granting a right-of-way easement over all its land not specifically bearing a building, tower, or support structure (including an agreement not to enlarge the single proposed tower or add additional towers), and US Cellular granting to ATC a right of first refusal should it discontinue operation of the tower.
Similarly, the DPATMC has been involved in hearings and meetings concerning the routing of the proposed Iroquois Gas Transmission pipeline in the vicinity of Leather Hill. A compromise worked out with DPATMC, NYNJTC, the Connecticut Chapter of the AMC, Iroquois, and others arranged for the pipeline to cross the AT in Connecticut near the area where Route 55 crosses the NY-CT state line, and for implementation of specific mitigating actions to minimize the damage to the corridor and trail route itself.
6.9 Adjacent Land Use
The nature of activity occurring or proposed on lands adjacent to the trail can influence the management and quality of the trail. Several existing laws promote input by the general public and adjacent landowners specifically. Subdivision and zoning regulations are in effect in each of the seven towns through which the AT passes. It is desirable to respond to local issues at the local level. However, not all towns require notification of adjacent landowners. Therefore, it is important for DPATMC to review public notice advertisements in the local papers of record.
The Appalachian Trail Project Office will be the NPS liaison for legal notices regarding sub- division, variances and zoning amendments. Letters will be sent to each town and county that such legal notices be sent to both:
Project Manager Ron Rosen
Appalachian Trail Project Office Dutchess/Putnam AT MC
National Park Service 166 Wilbur Blvd.
Harpers Ferry, WV 25425 Poughkeepsie, NY 12603
Upon receipt of such notices by DPATMC, someone on the committee will be assigned to attend all appropriate meetings, make appropriate comments about our desires in the matter and make recommendations to the committee, ATC and NPS about appropriate responses as necessary. In most cases the speed of response is very important.
NPS, if requested, will provide each town with copies of the segment maps upon completion of the acquisition. In addition, NPS will send segment maps to the Dutchess County Departments of Planning and Public Works and the Putnam County Planning Department.
DPATMC has prepared a document, Position Paper on Local Development, addressing strategies to assess external influences on the trail's quality. Specifically, the State Environmental Quality Review Act, the Public Service Commission's Article VII and VIII, and other procedures are addressed. See References, Appendix 9.2.
NYNJTC should encourage other organizations, including land trusts, conservation organizations, and planning groups, to help insure that development near the trail corridor is carefully planned to minimize the conflicts with trail values. The NYNJTC should encourage the various trail towns to declare the lands in and near the trail corridor as Critical Environmental Areas (CEAs).
6.10 Structures and Dams
Numerous structures were acquired as part of the land purchases. Almost all of these are slated for removal followed by restoration of the land to a natural state as money becomes available. See Appendix 9.8 for an inventory of the structures and proposed disposition.
There are two dams on NPS property to the west of Canada Hill. The one forming Curry Pond has an earthen dam that has mostly been breached and will be checked by the monitor to see that it remains breached. The concrete dam near the old Colt mansion is considered a significant hazard and an emergency preparedness document has been written but not implemented. The current NPS plans are to drain the pond and deactivate the dam. Both dams will be monitored.
The dam at Nuclear Lake is currently being rehabilitated. It will be retained and monitored. It is considered a high hazard and an emergency action plan has been developed by the NPS (see Appendix 9.3.7.)
One incidentally acquired structure, the house on the Kapla property in East Fishkill, was adopted by the Ralph's Peak Hikers club in the early 1980's and converted into the RPH cabin, which has served as an overnight use facility since then. In 1991, the DPATMC voted to continue use of this structure as an overnight facility, and recommended accordingly to the NYNJTC board. Because this overnight use facility is a completely enclosed cabin, adherence to the National Life Safety Code is required by the National Park Service. The DPATMC has been making some modifications towards meeting the objectives of that code. Additionally, the NYNJTC specifically lists this property in its liability insurance policy and (at the request of ATC) lists the ATC as an additional insured. The NYNJTC board has asked the DPATMC to review the status of this structure annually, and to update its recommendation each year.
Another structure, the barn and shed on the Yegella farm (Tegzes) property, and presently being recommended for continued agricultural use as part of a special use permit for that parcel. This structure will also need ongoing review to determine if it should be kept as well. The barn has asbestos shingles and may be removed in the future.
The house near old route 55 on the Nuclear Lake parcel is presently being used as a caretaker's residence for that property, by special arrangement (a VIP agreement) between the NPS and the family in residence. The maintenance of this structure and its other management needs are being handled by the NPS and the resident family directly at present, without direct involvement of the DPATMC.
At present, the committee is recommending the ultimate removal of all other incidentally acquired structures by the National Park Service.
The following ATC statement (9/79) defines the concept of monitoring:
"Land purchased and rights acquired by easement by the National Park Service must be monitored to insure that the purposes for which the land was acquired are being maintained. Similarly, any use of the lands must mesh with the management efforts of the volunteers and local land managing agencies. A program must be established to provide for regular surveillance of the properties and rights which have been acquired. This monitoring effort is of critical importance, as it will provide information about current conditions and use of the lands that will enable the Trail community to carry out its stewardship responsibilities. Monitoring is a major component of management efforts of the volunteers, and is vital to preservation of the natural character of the Trail environment."
Property acquired, in fee or easement, by NPS for the Trail corridor will be monitored to assure that the property is protected from illegal trespass and misuse. In addition the DPATMC has the responsibility of monitoring the easements and deed restrictions on 170 acres of land on the east side of Canada Hill for the Trust for Appalachian Trail Lands. On state lands in Hudson Highlands and Fahnestock Parks, the parks have the responsibility to protect the Trail from illegal trespass and misuse. These responsibilities are written into the statewide plan.
The committee achieves its goals by having area supervisors who are responsible for recruiting and training volunteer monitors for the NPS lands. These monitors will be assigned sections of the corridor of reasonable length (i.e., three miles or less). Monitors should preferably be local residents, tactful in dealing with situations which may arise, and willing to do the necessary field work in the corridor three or four times a year. Additional monitoring may be necessary in some cases where there is new construction activity or past or present evidence of possible violations. They are required to join the NYNJTC,in order to assure their responsibility to the Conference, as it is responsible to the ATC.
The area supervisor will provide each monitor with the necessary NPS segment and survey map(s) of his section, and either a copy of the deed or easement for each property or a form summarizing any special conditions, such as continuing use or right-of-way provisions.
Each monitor and area supervisor must keep records, including description of any special features. The monitors will submit semi-annual reports to the area supervisor. The area supervisor will summarize these reports annually by February 1 and send the summary to the DPATMC which will send copies to the ATC.
Monitors must report emergency situations immediately to the area supervisor by phone. An action plan shall be established for dealing with such emergencies as wood cutting, dumping, vandalism, etc. The area supervisor should submit an incident report to ATC, NYNJTC and DPATMC in such cases.
For those later acquisitions where the National Park Service has not yet surveyed and marked the corridor boundaries, no monitor should imply agreement or disagreement with adjacent landowners as to property lines. In the meantime, such boundaries may be tentatively identified by means of map, compass, altimeter, and measuring tape, as in orienteering.
Maintainers and monitors should be known to each other for mutual support and to increase the volunteer presence on the Trail. This has already been proven helpful by reports of downed trees and other trail problems made by monitors to maintainers, and reports of woodcutting, etc., made by maintainers to monitors.
Members of the committee will be assigned to cover town planning and zoning board meetings when DPATMC is notified that there are issues that might affect DPATMC's interests.
The NYNJTC and ATC supports the committee's efforts by occasionally organizing trail monitoring workshops to train and recruit monitors.
7 Issues and Policies - Resource Management
7.1 Open Areas and Vistas
While now largely in woodlands, some of the newly acquired corridor contains open areas and vistas. When in private hands most of these open areas were maintained by plowing, grazing, hay making, and lawn mowing. In this part of the northeast such open areas, unless actively maintained, will soon revert to shrubs, and ultimately to woodlands.
From the hiker's standpoint, such open areas can be desirable because they provide views and a diversity of surroundings. Moreover, it should not be overlooked that these open areas provide an additional benefit from the ecological viewpoint. This diversity provides the needed habitat for a number of species of birds and animals as well as space for a considerable number of plant species. In these counties where each year an increasing number of acres are being converted to suburban development, the maintaining of such open areas should be an especially important consideration.
No new vistas are planned. Existing open areas and vistas will be maintained by selective trimming or mowing. Where extensive cutting or other management activities seem desirable, the DPATMC will consult with the NYNJTC and the ATC prior to undertaking any such project. Some open areas border on existing or planned residential developments. Where helpful, the DPATMC will undertake vegetative screening of the Trail to minimize the impact of the development on the open areas. See the inventory and photographs for details about the individual areas.
DPATMC has started keeping a photographic record of vistas and open areas. A copy of the photographs will be retained by the committee. The photographs will be retaken approximately every 5 years and will be used to observe changes in the views, either due to growth of vegetation or development in the viewshed. Corrective measures will be taken based on this historical record.
7.2 Timber Management
The only area where timber management is practiced in either county is the DEC Depot Hill Multiple Use Area which was last harvested in mid-1991. See section 188.8.131.52 for details of their management policy.
DPATMC will follow the timber policy approved by the ATC Board of Managers on November 7, 1982. See Appendix 9.3.4.
7.3 Pest Management
The NPS insect and disease control policy is well established. Native insects and diseases existing under natural conditions are natural elements of the ecosystem. Populations of native insects will be allowed to function unimpeded except where control is required: (1) to prevent the loss of the host or host-dependent species from the ecosystem; (2) to prevent outbreaks of the insect or disease from spreading to forests, trees, other vegetative communities, or animal populations outside the area; (3) to conserve threatened or endangered or unique plant specimens or communities; (4) to conserve and protect flora and fauna in developed zones (e.g. parking areas, public use roads, aggregations of buildings); or (5) for reasons of public health and safety.
In determining appropriate control measures, the NPS has adopted the principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM) in dealing with pests (plant or animal) that interfere with management goals. The IPM approach maximizes the use of natural controls while minimizing chemical treatments, but does not rule out the use of chemical pesticides or herbicides. However, NPS policy is that chemicals or herbicides will be used only where other feasible alternatives are not available or acceptable. Their use on NPS lands must be approved by the director of the NPS, and application shall be in accordance with applicable laws and Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations. The principles of IPM have been utilized in issuing special use permits for continued agricultural use of NPS-acquired Trail lands.
In New York state, the DEC does not engage in pest control measures on non-state lands. Pest control is the responsibility of the individual local government or private landowners. DEC may provide technical assistance on IPM or other control measures for particular forest pests. Further, DEC rarely tries to control pests on state land, such as the Depot Hill Multiple Use Area. In such cases, their policy reflects that of the NPS above.
Attempts to control pest outbreaks present one of the most controversial aspects of management of Trail lands. Many types of native and introduced pest species are present on the AT lands and lands adjoining the Trail. Besides the obvious negative visual effects that insect and disease outbreaks can have on the Trail environment, significant economic impacts to surrounding areas occur as timber inventories drop. Nearby residential owners are frequently outspoken in their demands that control measures be undertaken.
Pest management in agricultural areas is also a significant concern. Pesticides are an important component of many ongoing farming operations, including many adjacent to or on AT lands with reserved rights or special use permits. Power company rights-of-way share some of the agricultural problems. Certain substances used for sanitary purposes are registered pesticides.
The primary pests are:
!deer ticks carrying Lyme disease
!wooly adelgid killing hemlocks
NPS policies will be followed for pest management. In addition the following methods of control may be applied:
!Off-the-shelf insecticides, to destroy hornet or wasp nests in overnight or other facilities or structures, or those located on or in close proximity to the treadway are permitted if other control measures have been considered and proven ineffective.
!Appropriate chemical disinfectants, necessary to satisfy local public health requirements, may be used for water sources or sanitary facilities. Prophylactic applications are not approved.
!Farmers must obtain NPS approval in advance for any herbicide or pesticide application. Farmers, under a SUP, must notify the appropriate area supervisor at least 48 hours in advance of the application of pesticides, and post the AT in accordance with DEC requirements. The supervisor will in turn notify ATC's special use permit coordinator. In addition, pesticides used must comply with Cornell Cooperative Extension recommendations for the target organism. DPATMC will consult with local Cooperative Extensions and Soil Conservation authorities before recommending specific treatments as part of the SUP issuance process.
!DPATMC will request that utilities use non-chemical means to keep rights-of-way clear if possible. If they must use chemical treatments, we will urge that they use precautions similar to those mentioned above for farming. No herbicides may be applied on NPS lands without prior NPS approval.
!Until an effective means of control for deer ticks (which bear Lyme disease) is found, DPATMC will rely on education to warn Trail users of the danger.
!Control of obnoxious vines and poison ivy will be limited to pulling out by the roots. Such removal by maintainers is encouraged with appropriate caution.
!Unless the effects of wooly adelgid and gypsy moths become much more severe than has been seen in the recent past, DPATMC will not make any special efforts at control. Any efforts will be with the advice and consent of NPS.
7.4 Threatened and Endangered Species
The terms "threatened" and "endangered" pertain to the specific legal status of a plant or animal species as designated by the Secretary of the Interior under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 following a recommendation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Likewise, state law provides protection above and beyond the federal provisions. An "endangered" species is one that is close to extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range. A "threatened" species is one likely to become endangered in the near future. Other terms are used to describe the relative population of a species, including "rare," "relict," and "sensitive" species. These latter terms do not give a species any legal protection under the Endangered Species Act. They do, however, provide a general indication of the size of a local population. See Appendix 9.3.5 for details on both state and federal protection.
The Trail and trail facilities will be located to avoid any danger to threatened, endangered or locally rare species. DPATMC will coordinate with federal agencies, DEC, OPRHP, and/or TNC to ensure that actions do not affect threatened or endangered species.
DPATMC will work with scientists and others towards obtaining more detailed site-specific locations of listed species. Field locations will be mapped for the benefit of maintainers. Sites or colonies will be evaluated to assess existing and potential impacts by hikers. Where impacts may occur, alternative measures will be developed and implemented to mitigate disturbances. Maps and specific information about species will be kept confidential. Such information will be available from the committee Chair on a need-to-know basis.
Starting in 1991, rabies in raccoons became a problem. Hikers will be advised with signs about the dangers. There are no other significant wildlife problems currently. Bears have been moving back into the general area and could become a problem.
7.6 Vegetation Management and Reclamation
Man-caused vegetation loss problems will be restored by planting with similar native plants and/or regrading to natural contours. Such damaged areas include places such as where easement violations have occurred or where incidentally acquired structures have been removed. See the sections on Open Areas and Pest Management for more information on vegetation management mostly due to natural causes. Fire, heavy winds or rain are also likely natural causes of problems. These naturally-caused problems will be restored only to the extent necessary to keep the Trail open and safe. The inventories contain some examples where this work has been necessary. Such projects require additional monitoring to check on the progress of the restoration.
7.7 Cultural Resources
The lands crossed by the Appalachian Trail have a rich history. Parts of the trail were major travel routes for native Americans, for soldiers of the opposing forces in the American Revolution, and for settlers pushing west to explore the new frontiers of our country in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Many of the springs, campsites, gaps, and lookouts along the Trail were used by earlier travellers and settlers. These sites, and the objects and other physical evidence left behind are an important part of our cultural heritage.
At the present time there are only a few identified cultural sites along the section of the Appalachian Trail that is managed by the DPATMC. These sites are listed in the inventory in Appendix 9.8. The general guidelines contained in the ATC publication, Appalachian Trail Local Management Planning Guide, Chapter 5(G) Cultural Resources, are endorsed by DPATMC and incorporated by reference into this LMP.
The physical trail will be managed in such a manner as to ensure the preservation of the historic and natural features encompassed in its corridor and, to the extent possible, in the adjacent land. Elaborate, on-site interpretive devices for any cultural and historical features, including display panels and descriptive signs, are generally incompatible with the AT. Trail managers will rely primarily on printed material, such as the Trail guidebook, to disseminate information about features along the Trail and to refer interested readers to other sources of information. When appropriate, information will be included on the informational bulletin boards. Efforts by other groups, such as the county historical societies or town/village historians, to preserve and document cultural and historical features will be encouraged and complemented by the DPATMC.
Although not major sites, the following resources are worth mentioning:
!Catholic shrine north of Graymoor Monastery
!Little Fort and Denning Hills
!Mines worked in 18th and 19th centuries
!Narrow gauge railroad bed south of Route 301
!AT Historical Marker on west side of NY Route 22
!Water tower at Hurds Corners
!Oblong Line, including the Stone Walls
!Harlem Valley State Hospital Cemetery
!State Line (NY/CT), including monuments
There are no wilderness areas or areas being considered for wilderness designation in either county.
7.9 Special and Unique Areas
Portions of the Trail pass through areas designated as "Critical Environmental Areas" (CEA) by the towns and/or the County Environmental Management Committee. Such designation affects the handling required by the town zoning and planning boards of development proposals. In the future, the DPATMC will work towards designation of the entire trail corridor as CEAs.
Preservation of wetlands has a high priority at the local and state levels. There are many small wetlands on both the Trail and adjoining lands. Those areas on the Trail are bridged with puncheon to protect the area as well as provide a safe crossing for the hiker. State laws require SEQR reviews of all construction on or near designated wetlands.
The policy is to disturb all wetlands as little as possible. The committee will acquire all necessary permits for construction of turnpiking or puncheon on the designated wetlands. Trail crossings of officially designated wetlands are listed in the inventory in Appendix 9.8.
7.11 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance
There are currently no projects envisaged which would require NEPA compliance but DPATMC is aware of the responsibilities and will consult with all appropriate agencies should it be necessary. On NPS lands, NEPA compliance is required for shelter construction, bridges over 35 feet, parking lots for 10 or more cars, and major relocations of the Trail footpath. In the past, some projects such as the open area project reopening the I-84 overlook fields and shelter construction have involved NEPA review.
8 Annual and Long Range Plans
Both annual and long range plans necessitate clear understandings and communications with the various partners in the management process. The DPATMC is responsible for long range planning and the establishment of goals and priorities. Specific work plans will be developed, approved, publicized and reviewed annually. The long range goal is the management of the AT and the AT lands according to the guidelines established by this LMP, the ATC and the NPS.
The first meeting after October 1 of each year, the committee will establish goals and priorities for the year by reviewing the Trail Assessment. These goals and priorities are subject to change as situations develop during the year. Some of these goals may be multi-year and require reexamination each year for their progress. Specific work projects will be set up to address the needs found by the Trail Assessment.
There are a number of activities that must be done on a cyclic basis, e.g. reviewing this LMP every 5 years, and submitting required reports on maintenance and monitoring. Appendix 9.6 is the current list of cyclic activities.
This LMP is a living document. Much of the material in the Appendices constantly changes and should be viewed as a snapshot of their state at the time of writing. More current versions of those changing pieces are available from the committee. Annual updates of some of the key pieces (such as the Trail Assessment) will be sent to management partners.
ADK Adirondack Mountain Club
AEC Atomic Energy Commission
AMC Appalachian Mountain Club
ANST Appalachian National Scenic Trail
AT Appalachian Trail
ATC Appalachian Trail Conference
ATPO Appalachian Trail Project Office
BSA Boy Scouts of America
CEA Critical Environment Area
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
DC Dutchess County
DEC Department of Environmental Conservation (NY)
DOL Department of Labor
DOT Department of Transportation (NY)
DPATMC Dutchess/Putnam County Appalachian Trail Management Committee
IPM Integrated Pest Management
LMP Local Management Plan
MH Mid-Hudson (group or chapter)
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
NEPA National Environmental Policy Act
NHS National Historic Site
NLMC Nuclear Lake Management Committee
NPS National Park Service
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NYNJTC New York-New Jersey Trail Conference
NYS New York State
OPRHP Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (NY)
OWCP Office of Worker's Compensation
PC Putnam County
RPH Ralph's Peak Hikers
SC Sierra Club
SEQR[A] State Environmental Quality Review [Act]
SUP Special Use Permit
TNC The Nature Conservancy
USFS United States Forest Service
USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service
9.2.1 Documents available from the Appalachian Trail Conference
Order by calling or writing Don Owen, Resource Management Coordinator, Appalachian Trail Conference, P.O. Box 807, Harpers Ferry, WV 25425, (304) 535-6331.
1. Appalachian Trail Comprehensive Plan, National Park Service, 1981
2. National Trails System Act, as amended
3. Memorandum of Agreement Between the National Park Service and the Appalachian Trail Conference Concerning the Appalachian Trail, January 26, 1984, renewed March 1989.
4. Handbook for Corridor Monitoring and Management of the Appalachian Trail
5.Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36: Parks, Forests and Public Property, Chapter 1, Parts 2 through 7.
6. Local Management Planning Guide
7. Segment Maps 265-278
8. Survey Maps for all surveyed tracts
9. "Blue" file for each acquired tract, includes deeds and restrictions
9.2.2 Documents available from the Dutchess/Putnam County Management Committee
Order by calling or writing Ron Rosen, Chair DPATMC, 166 Wilbur Blvd., Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, (914) 454-4936.
1. Position Paper on Local Development
2. Nuclear Lake Report
3. Segment maps 265-278
4. Survey Maps
5. Special Use Permits
6. TREAD report, (Trail Resource Data Base)
9.2.3 Documents available from the New York-New Jersey Trail Conference
Order by calling or writing NYNJTC, 232 Madison Avenue #401, New York, NY 10016.
1. Trails Policy
2. Trail Maintenance Manual
3. MOU for the ANST in the State of New York State
4. "Blue" file for each acquired tract, includes deeds and restrictions
9.2.4 Publications for sale
Available from ATC or in some cases local outdoor stores.
1. Trail Design, Construction and Maintenance, William Birchard, Jr. and Robert D. Proudman.
2. A.T. Fieldbook: A Self-Help Guide for Trail Maintainers
3. Backcountry Facilities: Design and Maintenance, R. E. Leonard, E. L. Spencer, and H. J. Plumley
4. Appalachian Trail Data Book, revised annually.
5. Appalachian Trail Guide to New York and New Jersey
6. Trail Building and Maintenance, 2nd Edition, Robert D. Proudman and Reuben Rajala
9.3 Supplemental Documents
9.3.1 Volunteers-in-the-Parks (VIP)
Under a signed agreement between the National Park Service and the Appalachian Trail Conference, member clubs may choose to participate in the NPS Volunteers-in-the-Parks program to provide its members with the protection and benefits summarized below. The basic requirements for club participation are spelled out under "Club Responsibilities". [Trail maintainers working within national forest lands are covered under separate Volunteers-in-the-Forests agreements with the USFS.]
Benefits and Protection
Volunteers-in-the-Parks (VIPs) receive benefits and protection under the Federal Tort Claims Act and the Federal Employees Compensation Act as if they were federal employees:
! Federal Tort Claims Act: While acting within the scope of their responsibilities to maintain and monitor Trail lands, VIPs receive protection for personal liability from any tort claims submitted for personal or property injury.
! Federal Employees Compensation Act: VIPs are treated as employees for first aid and medical care, as well as hospital care, when necessary, for injuries resulting from maintenance and monitoring work on Appalachian Trail lands. When travel is necessary to receive medical care, incidental transportation expenses may be reimbursable. When death results, burial and funeral expenses up to $800 may be paid. VIPs do not receive compensation for time lost from their regularly-paying jobs.
When a volunteer suffers an injury and desires to file a claim for compensation, facts concerning the accident must be documented and submitted by the trail club President or Trails Supervisor through the Appalachian Trail Project Office (ATPO)/National Park Service to the Office of Worker's Compensation (OWCP)/Department of Labor. OWCP makes a determination as to the validity of the claim prior to compensation. Processing of claims is historically very slow. It is not uncommon for it to take a year for employees to be reimbursed for medical bills they have paid directly.
Clubs wishing to participate must:
!Maintain a current membership list (only club members or persons signed in on work trips or projects are covered under this agreement).
!Have NPS parental/guardian consent forms signed and kept in club files for those club members under 18 years of age that will be performing trail work and wish to be covered.
!Maintain records of total number of volunteers and estimated volunteer work hours and submit annual report to ATC (to be submitted by November 1st for October 1st through September 30th of each year--used in NPS report to Congress).
!Assist club members in filing claims for reimbursement through NPS/ATPO, as needed.
!Discuss with ATC any interest in covering volunteers other than club members under this program.
!Ensure that volunteers are properly trained, supervised and equipped for the tasks that they perform, including safety training and equipment.
9.3.2 Worker's Compensation
Volunteers working on the Trail in the state parks are covered under Worker's Compensation. To be eligible the NYNJTC must supply the state parks with the Social Security numbers of all volunteers that work in the parks on a yearly basis.
9.3.3 Summary of NPS boundary marking specifications
An aluminum monument is placed at each corner on the corridor boundary. Additional monuments are set on straight survey lines such that there is one at least every 1000 feet. Each monument is referenced to a minimum of three "witness stations" such as nails in trees, or chiseled marks on rocks. Each monument is stamped with a number that includes the segment number and a serial number within that segment. There are survey maps available that have all of the above information recorded on the maps. These monuments and witness stations can only be replaced by a licensed surveyor approved or under contract by the NPS. Missing monuments should be reported so that they get replaced.
The exterior corridor boundary lines are blazed in paint; those originating before 1990 were painted as diamonds (originally red in color). Newer blazes are 3x6 inch yellow rectangles. As red line markers are refreshed, they are being converted to yellow paint. All trees on the line are blazed as line trees by painting on both sides of the tree facing the direction of the line. Trees on each side of the line and within one foot of the line are blazed as line trees with an additional blaze on the side facing the line. Other trees within three feet of the line are marked with one blaze on the side facing the line. These blazes can and should be refreshed by the monitor or other volunteer before they are in danger of being lost. Monitors may not paint previously unmarked trees. Long stretches with no marked trees should be reported so that a surveyor can reestablish the line.
The exterior corridor boundary is also marked every 300 feet by a plastic U.S. Boundary sign nailed to trees on or near the line. The sign faces toward the adjoining owner (outward). Additional signs are placed at all corners and on-line monuments. They are fastened loosely with galvanized nails to allow for tree growth. They can and should be replaced by monitors if they are missing.
9.3.4 ATC Timber Policy
Approved by ATC Board of Managers on November 7, 1982
1. Forest resource management to enhance the trail corridor (i.e., non-commercial vegetational manipulation for vistas, balds, etc.) is an integral part of corridor lands management. Local clubs shall have the discretion to practice such activities as they feel are necessary to manage the forests so as to protect the Trail and its environs.
2. Management of forest resources to protect and enhance the AT corridor shall be considered as part of local management planning to assure that such activities are compatible with the goals of the ATC and take into consideration other local non- commercial forest resource management activities.
3. Local clubs should consult periodically with the ATC and the NPS on forest resource management activities, and plans to assure that they continue to be consistent with overall AT corridor planning and management.
4. Forest resource management for timber (i.e., commercial harvest of firewood, sawtimber, or pulpwood) will be allowed only under exceptional circumstances and only when local clubs can show that such activity is consistent with the goals of the ATC [and with prior NPS approval].
5. Before local clubs can undertake activities to manage the forest for timber, a complete plan must be developed by the club, in consultation with the local management partner, and be approved by the ATC regional management committee, ATC Board, the National Park Service, and other public landowners (if such land is affected). Approval will be based both on stringent guidelines which will assure adequate protection of the trail and the corridor, and on an assessment of the need for the activity.
6. Before any club can undertake forest resource management for timber (i.e., commercial timber harvesting), the ATC and the NPS must finally resolve the questions of who may collect and use the proceeds from any commercial activity.
7. This policy shall apply specifically to corridor lands owned in fee by the National Park Service.
9.3.5 Threatened and Endangered Species
"Threatened" and "endangered" species are provided expansive protection from federal action under Section 7 of the Act, which states in part:
"All federal departments and agencies shall, in consultation with and with the assistance of the Secretary [of Interior], utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of this Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered species and threatened species... and by taking such action necessary to insure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not jeopardize the continued existence of such endangered species and threatened species or result in the destruction or modification of habitat of such species which is determined by the Secretary, after consultation as appropriate with the affected states, to be critical."
This provision imposed significant constraints on federal activities, including actions that take place on federal lands and actions that might require federal permits, licenses, or funds.
New York State provides protection to species of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms through law and rules and regulations.
Information on individual species in need of protection is assembled and maintained by the Natural Heritage Program, in Delmar, NY. The New York Natural Heritage Program's goal is to establish and maintain up-to-date inventory on the location and status of New York's rarest animal and plant species and the highest-quality examples of all natural communities. Information from the database is released, upon request, on a need-to-know basis. This provides protection for exploitable species.
Specific requests for information on a particular location or trail segment may be routed to the DEC office: 21 South Putt Corners Road, New Paltz, NY 12561, (914) 255-5453. The Nature Conservancy, Lower Hudson Chapter, 223 Katonah Avenue, Katonah, NY 10536, (914) 232-9431 is an alternate contact. Known new locations or species should be reported to the Natural Heritage Program/Significant Habitat Unit, DEC Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY 12054.
An examination of the maps on file at DEC in November 1989 identified one threatened animal species, and one threatened and four rare plants in the vicinity of the AT on the Pawling Quad USGS map. Also, a rattlesnake den exists on Canada Hill in Putnam County within the Trail corridor.
In New York state, four categories of protected plants exist:
!Endangered native plants are those in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges within the state, and require remedial action to prevent such extinction;
!Threatened native plants are those likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges;
!Exploitable vulnerable native plants are those likely to become threatened in the near future throughout all or a significant portion of their range if causal factors continue unchecked;
!Rare native plants have small populations within their range.
Plants on the above lists, contained in 6NYCRR part 193.3, are protected native plants pursuant to section 9-1503 of the Environmental Conservation Law. The scientific name is used for the purpose of identification and determination of violations.
It is a violation for any person, anywhere in the state, to pick, pluck, sever, remove, damage by the application of herbicides or defoliants, or carry away, without the consent of the owner, any protected plant. We note that maintenance of the existing treadway of the AT and its side trails, as well as defined vistas and open areas, may require removal of plant species by authorized maintainers; in such cases consent of the owner is specifically provided by this document.
Similarly, vertebrate species are protected by both state and federal law and regulations in these categories:
!Threatened, endangered, or special concern;
!Game species, which require a license to take in season only, and are protected at other times;
!Protected species, are not be taken at any time (most birds, for example);
!Unprotected species, which may be taken at any time.
For a complete list of the status for New York vertebrates see Checklist of the Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals of New York State, Including Their Protective Status, DEC Division of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resource Center, Delmar, NY 12054-9767.
!Federal agencies are bound by law to ensure that their actions do not jeopardize the existence of a threatened or endangered species or its habitat. Federal programs include provisions for inventories, mitigation of impacts, and reintroduction of threatened and endangered species
!The NPS must evaluate the potential for any action upon threatened or endangered species. To fulfill this obligation, on-site reviews are conducted by qualified biologists prior to any major surface-disturbing activity on federal lands. Should an "on-site" inventory reveal the potential for existence of a threatened or endangered plant or animal, the federal agency must initiate a format consultation process with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The USFWS must issue a finding of "no jeopardy" to the identified species before the federal agency can undertake any further action. It may require specific mitigation to prevent any impacts to threatened and endangered species, such as relocation of a shelter or section of Trail.
9.3.6 Decision Matrix
When deciding particular approaches to specific areas of concern the following decision matrix is used to generate discussion.
|Health and Safety of User|
|Sensory Perceptions of User|
|Physical Damage to Resource|
1. Describe potential positive and/or negative impacts for each category.
2. Determine if the proposed use will require further study prior to implementation.
3. Determine if one use may prohibit the implementation of any other use.
4. Recommend mitigating measures and/or restrictions.
Footpath - treadway and actual right-of-way
Corridor - entire land ownership by NPS, excluding footpath
External - lands outside of the corridor which may have an impact upon the Trail experience ("zone of consultation")
9.3.7 Dam Emergency Preparedness
Not available at this time.
9.3.8 State Park Regulations and Policies
Not available at this time.
9.3.9 Summary of Applicable Regulations (incomplete)
184.108.40.206 Life Safe Code for NPS structures
Not available at this time.
220.127.116.11 Health codes related to privies and water supplies
Not available at this time.
18.104.22.168 Posting Land for limiting access, e.g. hunting, motor vehicles
Posting signs must be at least 11 inches square and have the words "POSTED" covering at least 80 square inches. It should warn all persons against all non-permitted uses. It must also have the name and address of the poster. The signs must be posted on all sides and at the corners. Notices must be no more than 640 feet apart.
9.4 Cooperative Agreements and Memoranda of Understanding
9.4.1 Pink Arrow Trail
June 23, 1990
M. Carlton Van Patten/Richard Lougheed
Old Albany Post Road
Garrison, NY 10524
Dear Mr. Van Patten and Mr. Lougheed,
As Overseers of the Appalachian Trail in Putnam County we have noticed the construction of a side trail to the Appalachian Trail from property that you are developing off of Old Albany Post Road. Strictly speaking, you should have contacted us before the construction of a trail on U.S. Government property since we are the local managers of that property. In practice, we are happy to have trail neighbors use the Trail and help protect the resource. Local neighbors are likely to see threats to the Trail and trail lands before our monitors and maintainers.
We would like you to formally request permission for a side trail. This can be done by attending one of our meetings, sending back a signed copy of this letter (if you can accept the conditions mentioned here), or writing your own letter proposing other conditions. We would like to accept the side trail with the condition that our monitors and maintainers be allowed to use it for trail access at most of few times a year each. They would contact either you or one of the landowners near the side trail before using the side trail and leave an identifying marker on their car. Such access would be useful to us because your side trail is near the midpoint of a three mile section. We will not mention the side trail in any of the trail literature such as guide books to hopefully keep curious hikers from using the trail. We would suggest that you post no trespassing signs at your property boundary. We are particularly concerned with mechanized or horse access to the trail so anything you can do to prevent such access through your property would be appreciated.
Please feel free to contact us to discuss this issue or report any problems that you observe.
Walt & Jane Daniels
Putnam County Appalachian Trail Management Committee
cc: John Taube
Wylie Sypher (monitor)
Jay Sorkin (maintainer)
Anne Lutkenhouse (AT Field Rep.)
9.5 Nuclear Lake Report
This report contains (I) a copy of all recommendations issued to date by the Nuclear Lake Management Committee, (II) a list of all reports available related to testing of the Nuclear Lake site, and (III) a copy of the current Nuclear Lake brochure prepared by the DCATMC and distributed along the trail for the purpose of meeting specific recommendations of the NLMC. A copy of the report is available from the DPATMC.
This issue of the eventual disposition and use of the site is still active and the DPATMC must track progress and proactively insist on the resolution.
9.6 Planning Cycle and Calendar
|8 per year||Management committee meetings (about every 6 weeks)|
|Oct||1 per year||Set goals and priorities for the year at first meeting.|
|Nov||1 per year||Submit VIP report for previous Oct 1 - Sept 30.|
|May 31, Nov 30||2 per year||Maintainers submit trail maintenance reports to supervisors|
|June 14, Dec. 14||2 per year||Supervisors submit summary of trail maintenance reports to Chair|
|July 1, Dec. 1||2 per year||Monitors submit monitor report to supervisor|
|March 23||1 per year||Supervisors submit summary of monitor reports to Chair and NYNJTC|
|March 1||1 per year||Summary of registers and shelter logs to NYNJTC and ATC|
|spring||1 per year||Test water at wells|
|1 per year||Submit Social Security No's. to NYNJTC for maintainers in State Parks|
|January||1 per year||Update trail assessment|
|February||1 per year||Apply for ATC grants to clubs if needed|
|April||1 per year||Apply to ATC for use of the Mid-atlantic trail crew if needed|
|spring||1 per year||renew special use permits for fields|
|1 per year||review RPH cabin status|
|1 per year||review progress on the resolution of the Nuclear Lake issues|
|1 per year||review Manitoga agreement|
|every 2 years||report on status of boundary signs, monuments and exterior corridor blazes|
|every 5 years||Redo photo survey of open areas and vistas|
|every 5 years||Thorough review of LMP starting at end of 4th year|
|every 5 years||Meet with local fire and police to review past and plan for future|
9.7 Current Contact List
This list includes all current DCATMC contacts mentioned in the management plan. All telephone numbers are 914 area code unless otherwise indicated. An asterisk (*) after a name indicates a dual listing on this list (i.e., also listed previously). The ++ symbol indicates we are awaiting a designated representative.
9.7.1 DPATMC Members
Phone (914 default)
|Chair DPATMC||Ron Rosen||
454-4936 or 454-1721
|Putnam Area Supervisor
(Bear Mtn. bridge to Route 301)
|Taconic Area Supervisor
(Route 301 to I-84)
|Nuclear Lake Area Supervisor (I-84 to D.C. Route 20)||Mike Arthur||
|Northern Area Supervisor
(D.C. Route 20 to CT line)
|Northern Area Supervisor (Monitoring only)||Jim Gasser||
|Jane Geisler *||
|DEC agency rep.||Fred Gerty||
|OPRHP agency rep.||Ken Lutters||
|NPS local agency contact:
|Paul B. Cole (ROVA Superintendent)++||
|Individual maintainer||Salley Decker||
|Individual maintainer||Dennis Kloepping||
(RPH & Messerschmitt)
|Father Fred Alvarez||
|Town rep - Pawling||Bill Kikillus||
|Town rep - East Fishkill||vacant ++|
|Town rep - Beekman||vacant ++|
|Town rep - Dover||vacant ++|
|Town rep - Putnam Valley||vacant ++|
|Town rep - Philipstown||vacant ++|
9.7.2 Local Agency Contacts
Phone (914 default)
|Police||Dutchess County Sheriff||
|Police||Putnam County Sheriff||
|Police||New York State Police
Captain David Spahl
|Police||Town of Kent||
|Police||Town of East Fishkill||
|Fire||Dutchess County Fire Bureau||
|DEC - Lands & Forests Office||
|Transportation/Roads||DOT-Region 8 HQ
|Bear Mountain Bridge||NYS Bridge Authority
James J. Bresnan
|Search & Rescue (DEC)||Ranger Scott Murphy
|Search & Rescue (DEC)||Ranger Paul Rinaldi
|Search & Rescue (DEC)||Ranger Dick Swanson||
|Search & Rescue (DEC)||DEC Headquarters||
(M-F only) 256-3026
|Search & Rescue (DEC)||DEC Message Center||
If no answer to above
|NY State Office of Parks, Recreation & Historic Preservation (OPRHP)||Jim Moogan
|Fahnestock State Park||Park Mgr. Bill Bauman||
|Town clerk (or main)||East Fishkill||
|Town clerk (or main)||Beekman||
|Town clerk (or main)||Pawling||
|Town clerk (or main)||Dover||
|Town clerk (or main)||Putnam Valley||
|Town clerk (or main)||Philipstown||
|Town clerk (or main)||Kent||
|State Park Police||Lt. Michael Daley||
|NPS RoVa (Bellefield) park police||Chris Jefferson||
9.7.3 Other Contacts
Phone (default 914)
|NPS AT Park Office
Harpers Ferry, WV
|Park Mgr. Pam Underhill
Chief Ranger Bob Gray
Environmental: Don Owen
Kent Schwarzkopf, Rita Hennessy, Mark Grupe
Fax: (304) 535-6270
|NPS AT Land Acquisition Office, Martinsburg WV||Chief Don King,
Fax: (304) 267-8374
|Appalachian Trail Conference (ATC)
Harpers Ferry, WV
|Ex.Dir. Dave Startzell
Bob Proudman, Jeff Wynn
Fax: (304) 535-2667
|ATC Regional Office (Boiling Spring, PA)||Karen Lutz,
|ATC Board Member (NY)||Jane Daniels||
|NY-NJ Trail Conference
Fax: (212) 779-8102
|NYNJTC Projects Director (some AT coverage)||Anne Lutkenhouse||
Fax: (212) 779-8102
|NYNJTC President||Neil Zimmerman||
|NYNJTC Trails Council||Gary Haugland||
|NYNJTC East Hudson Trails Chairperson||Jane Daniels *||
|Orange/Rockland AT Management Committee||G. Gail Neffinger||
|Connecticut AMC Trails Committee||Ann Sherwood||
|Telephone Pioneers Shelter Caretaker||Julie Angle & Mitch Steiner||
|Wiley (Webatuck) Shelter Caretaker||Robert Woodin||
|Morgan Stewart Shelter Caretaker||Jeff Senterman *||
|RPH Cabin/Shelter Volunteer Caretaker||Joe Hrouda *||
|Messerschmitt Cabin Volunteer Caretaker||Joe Hrouda *||
|Nuclear Lake Caretakers||Jim & Pat Robson||
|Nuclear Lake Management Committee Chair||Vacant ++|
|Pawling Nature Reserve (Local Committee)||Mark Chipkin||
|CT: Law Enforcement, Medical Emergency, Fire, Search & Rescue||
(in CT only) 911
|CT Dept. of Environmental Protection||Tony Cantele (Deputy Dir. Field Operations)||
|Appalachian Mountain Club (CT/MA Field Office)||Dennis Regan||
|Bear Mt. Bridge||South Mountain Pass||278||Daniels|
|South Mountain Pass||Rt 9 & 403||278,277||Daniels|
|Rt 9 & 403||Old West Point Road||277||Daniels|
|Old West Point Road||Old Albany Post Road||277,276||Daniels|
|Old Albany Post Road||Canopus Hill Road||276||Daniels|
|Canopus Hill Road||South Highland Road||276||Daniels|
|South Highland Road||Dennytown Road||276,275||Daniels|
|Dennytown Road||Rt 301||275,274||Daniels|
|Rt 301||Long Hill Road||274,273||Muller|
|Long Hill Road||Taconic Parkway||273,272||Muller|
|Taconic Parkway||Hosner Mountain Road||272,271||Muller|
|Hosner Mountain Road||Rt 52||271||Muller|
|Rt 52||I84 bridge||271||Muller|
|I84 bridge||Depot Hill Road||271,270||Senterman|
|Depot Hill Road||Old Rt 55||270,269||Senterman|
|Old Rt 55||Rt 55||269||Senterman|
|Rt 55||Penny Road||269||Senterman|
|Penny Road||DC 20||269,268||Senterman|
|DC 20||Rt 22||268||Geisler, Schneier|
|Rt 22||Duell Hollow Road||268,267||Geisler, Schneier|
|Duell Hollow Road||Iroquois Gas line||267,266,286||Geisler, Schneier|
|Iroquois Gas line||Parking lot Rt 55||286||CT AMC|
|Bull's Bridge Road||Ct line||265||Geisler, Schneier|
9.8.2 Trail and Resource Codes
|R||Historic||Historic or cultural site|
|R||N&C Res||Natural and Cultural Resources (general)|
|R||T&E||Threatened and Endangered Species|
|R||Value Res||Special Value Resources|
|T||Design||Critical Design Problems|
|T||Improve||Improvements at trailhead|
|T||Info||Public information (signs, registers)|
|T||Lodge||Motel, Hostel, etc.|
|T||Overnite||Overnite site (general)|
|T||Trail Man||Trail Management (general)|
|T||Trailhead||Trailhead facilities (general)|
9.8.3 Trail and Resource Inventory
9.8.4 Management and Public/Conflicting Use Codes
|M||ECBS||Exterior Corridor Boundary Survey|
|M||Permit||Various management permits|
|M||Prop Man||Property Management (general)|
|M||Structure||Incidentally Acquired Structures|
|U||Access||Road Closures/Access Control|
|U||Pub Use||Public Use/Incompatible Use|
9.8.5 Management and Public/Conflicting Use Inventory